Chronology of the Well-traveled 100th Pennsylvania Volunteer Regiment, "The Roundheads"

Webauthor's Note: Some time ago, I decided to prepare a brief chronology of movements of the Roundhead regiment during the entire course of the Civil War.  The resulting chronology from multiple sources listed at the end, shows an almost daily account of the Roundhead's travels by foot, train, ocean steamer and river boats.  Many of the entries include number of miles marched or traveled by train or boat.  It is amazing the miles logged by this regiment, which was part of the 9th Army Corps, the most traveled of all the Federal Corps.  But even more impressive is that the Roundheads had already logged many miles BEFORE they became part of the 9th Army Corps.  This travel consisted of their campaigns in Port Royal, South Carolina.  Their incorporation into the 9th Army Corps didn't occur until July 22, 1862.

Ultimately, my hopes are to create a animated map which shows the movements of the regiment during the course of the war.  If anyone has ever seen the animated Civil War maps in MS Encarta, this is kind of what I am envisioning.  This may be aways off, but if anyone has any ideas for how to create the animated map, I will listen to all suggestions with great enthusiasm.

-- David L. Welch 




August 29-31, 1861:  Regiment musters in at Camp Wilkins, PA


September 2, 1861:  Regiment marches to Pittsburgh depot, boards the train cars and departs to Harrisburg at 4:00 pm.

September 3, 1861:  Regiment arrives in Harrisburg at 10:00 am.  Regiment leaves for Baltimore by train at 1:00 pm.

September 4, 1861:  Regiment arrives in Baltimore at 3:00 am.  Move by train to Washington D.C.  Arrive in Washington in the morning after 2 hour train ride.  March through Washington to Camp Kalorama in Kalorama Heights.

September 5-30, 1861:  Camped at Kalorama Heights—Drill.


October 1-9, 1861: Camped at Kalorama Heights—Drill.

October 10, 1861:  Leave for Annapolis, MD by Train, 22 miles away.

October 10-18, 1861:  Encamped at Annapolis, MD awaiting orders for campaign along South Carolina coast.  Encamped with 79th NY Highlanders, 8th Michigan and 50th Penna regiments.

October 19, 1861:  Leave for South Carolina coast on a large side-wheeled steamer, “The Ocean Queen”. 

October 22, 1861:  Stop at Fortress Monroe at Hampton Roads on Chesapeake Bay until weather clears to sail.

October 22-28, 1861:  Camp on ship waiting for orders to sail again after weather clears.  Sail with fleet of 75 ships.

October 29-31, 1861:  Continue sailing on “Ocean Queen” for South Carolina coast.


November 1-3, 1861:  Continue sailing on “Ocean Queen” for South Carolina coast.  Hurricane force storm hits fleet, but is of short duration saving disaster for the fleet.  3 cargo ships and one transport are lost in storm.

November 4, 1861:  “Ocean Queen” arrives at the mouth of Port Royal Harbor.

November 7, 1861:  Naval attack on Fort Walker on Hilton Head Island.  U.S. ship “Wabash” spearheads the attack.  At 11:00pm at night, Roundheads land on island.  The gunboat “Winfield Scott” gets them close to shore, than by “surf” boats and then wading in to shore.

November 8-30, 1861: Encampment near Fort Walker on Hilton Head, SC.


December 1-6, 1861:  Continue encampment at Fort Walker on Hilton Head, SC.

December 7, 1861:  Depart for Beaufort, S.C. on the “Winfield Scott” in the morning and arrive in Beaufort that afternoon.

December 8-31, 1861: Camp in Beaufort, SC. on Port Royal Island. 

December 30, 1861:  Port Royal Ferry Action with the 14th South Carolina, four companies of the 12th South Carolina, a section of Leak’s Virginia battery and detachment of cavalry, all under command of Col. James Jones of the 14th SC.  Rebels retreat without support.  The Roundheads suffer no casualties.


JANUARY-MAY:  Continue encampment in town of Beaufort, S.C.

May 30, 1862: Receive marching orders.  Leave on gunboat 6 miles down river to gunboat “Bienville” and by that gunboat to Hilton Head Island.

May 31, 1862:  Lie waiting at Hilton Head for orders to move out.


June 1, 1862: Regiment assigned to Isaac I. Stevens 2nd Division. 

June 2, 1862:  Regiment moves from Hilton Head to Stono River Inlet.  Companies “C” and “M” land at Legareville to secure that area for encampment on Legare Island.  Main force lands on James Island.

June 3, 1862:  Forty Roundheads from four companies (A, D, I and F) under the command of Co. “F’s”  Capt. Cline sends a reconnaissance 1 ½ miles from camp and in conjunction with two companies with the 28th Massachusetts captures two pieces of confederate artillery after heavy skirmishing.  28th Massachussetts troops are attacked by Confederates in their front, flee the field and leave Cline’s men exposed.  After putting up a spirited fight, 22 men and officers of the company surrender.  A company of the 79th NY Highlanders also come up in support.

June 4-15, 1862:  Encampment on Legare Island.

June 16, 1862:  Battle of Secessionville against Tower Battery Lamar, in early morning.

June 17-30, 1862:  Continue encampment at Legare Island.


July 1-9, 1862:  Continue encampment on Legare Island.

July 10-11, 1862:  Board ocean transport “Merrimac” on maiden voyage after taking the steamer “Cosmopolitan” to Hilton Head.  Regiment battered by storm.

July 12, 1862:  Set sail for Newport News, VA. 

July 16, 1862:  Arrive in Newport News, VA after pleasant journey. Go into encampment there approximately 5 or 6 miles from Fort Monroe.

July 22, 1862:  9th Army Corps is born, Ambrose Burnside commanding three divisions commanded by Reno, Parke and Stevens.

July 23-31, 1862:  Continue encampment at Newport News, VA


August 3, 1862:  At 3:00 pm leave for Aquia Creek on the Potomac River near Fredericksburg aboard the steamer “Atlantic”. 

August 5, 1862:  Arrive at Aquia Creek in morning.  Leave for Falmouth in the afternoon by rail and bivouac there for the night with 79th NY Highlanders and a portion of the 46th NY.

August 6, 1862:  Brigade crosses the Rappahannock and marches through the town of Fredericksburg and encamps in the immediate vicinity of Fredericksburg.

August 7-11, 1862:  Encampment in vicinity of Fredericksburg.

August 12, 1862: Fierce storm of wind and rain knocks down many tents of the brigade 

August 13, 1862:  Receive orders at 2:30 am to move. March out at 4:00 pm.  Camp for night at Deep Run.

August 14, 1862:  March for Rappahannock Station on the line of the Orange and Alexandria Railroad and arrive there in the evening after an extremely long and tiring march.  Bivouac at Rappahannock Station.

August 15, 1862:  March to Culpepper Court House.  Arrive there at 3:00pm.  Bivouac just east of Culpepper.  Artillery and army supply wagons slow down march.

August 16, 1862:  March in the morning to the vicinity of Cedar Mountain Battlefield and stop at noon.    Encamp there.

August 17-18, 1862:  Remain encamped in the vicinity of the Cedar Mountain Battlefield at Racoon Ford.  Racoon Ford on the Rapidan is approximately 2 miles away from the Battlefield.

August 19, 1862: At midnight silently march to Barnett’s Ford on the Rapidan, then ordered to halt retrace steps of march and retire beyond the Rappahannock at Kelly’s Ford on the east bank of the Rappahannock.  Movement is made here to prevent crossing of the Rappahannock..  Bivouac partly in an orchard and cornfield.

August 20-26, 1862:  March, counter-march and maneuvering in the vicinity of Kelly’s Ford.

August 27, 1862:  Fearful march and just before sundown reach Greenwich where alongside Kearny’s Division, Roundheads go into bivouac sleeping on arms.  The night of the 27, 1862, a comet is viewed over Manassas junction as an evil omen to the following day.  Stonewall Jackson’s troops burn union army stores at Manassas Junction and destroy railroad rolling stock.

August 28, 1862:  Steven’s Division moves, reaches Manassas Junction by 11:00 am, and camp in vicinity of Centerville at 11:00 pm on the battleground of First Bull Run. 

August 29, 1862:  At 5:00am, Roundheads are in line of battle with Leasure’s Brigade…All of the 100th PA and half of the 46th NY for a battle strength of approximately 650 muskets.  Battle of 2nd Bull Run begins, Roundheads initially at Groveton, then east up the Warrenton Turnpike and then an attack north on the confederates in the railroad cut and then retreat off to the east near the Manassas-Sudley Road.

August 30, 1862:  Battle of 2nd Bull Run ends; regiment remains in the vicinity of the Manassas-Sudley Road, east of the Matthews house.

August 31, 1862:  Steven’s Division forms across the Warrenton Turnpike about one mile west of Centreville on high ground overlooking Cub Run.


September 1, 1862:  Orders to move out at 2:00pm to march eastward on the Warrenton Turnpike, then northward by a cross road to the Little River Turnpike, taking position to block the enemy’s movement there.   Steven’s Division attacks confederates in the woods across cornfield of the Reid House toward Ox Hill.   Battle of Chantilly/Ox Hill underway.   General Stevens is killed. 

September 2, 1862:  March to Alexandria, VA…camp there.

September 3, 1862:  Continue encampment at Alexandria.

September 4, 1862:  March to Washington D.C.; encamp at 7th Street in Washington.

September 5-6, 1862:  Camp at 7th Street in Washington.

September 7, 1862:  Maryland campaign begins; march 10 miles to Leesborough

September 8, 1862:  March to Brookville.

September 9, 1862:  Arrive in Brookville.  March to New Market, 8 miles further.

September 10, 1862:  Arrive in New Market. Camp

September 11, 1862:  Camp at New Market

September 12, 1862:  March to Frederick, MD via the Monocacy River crossing on the B&O Railroad bridge.  Camp.

September 13, 1862:  March to Middletown, MD, camp.

September 14, 1862:  March to the base of South Mountain at Turner’s Gap.   Battle of South Mountain

September 15, 1862:  Leisurely march toward site of Antietam Battlefield. 

September 16, 1862:  Reach Porterstown on Antietam Creek in the early am.  Bivouac here at Locust Spring or Geeting Farm between Keedysville and Porterstown.

September 17, 1862:  Battle of Antietam.  Roundheads don’t engage until late morning.  Advance units (51st NY and 51st PA) of the 9th Corps under Burnside finally secure Rohrbach Bridge at 1:00pm after two bloody and unsuccessful attempts.   Roundheads reach the outskirts of Sharpsburg at 3:00pm before being driven back with no support from other Army of the Potomac troops under McClellan.

September 18, 1862:  Bivouac on Antietam Battlefield.

September 19, 1862:  March to vicinity of Antietam Furnace close to the mouth of the Antietam Creek on the Potomac River.

September 20-30, 1862:  Camped at Antietam Furnace.


October 1-6, 1862:  Continue encampment at Antietam Furnace.

October 7, 1862:  March to Pleasant Valley, south of Harper’s Ferry, WV on the Maryland side of the Potomac.  March commences via Elk Ridge and through Solomon’s Gap and then south about 1 mile from the Potomac close to Weaverton.  Encamp along “Israel Creek”.   Camp is called “Camp Israel”.

October 8-25, 1862:  Continue encampment at “Camp Israel”.

October 13, 1862: Regiment transports by rail to “Point of Rocks” and then following the Chesapeake and Ohio canal, marched back to Camp Israel.

October 14, 1862:  Camp in the field on way back to Camp Israel.

October 15, 1862:  Regiment arrives back at Camp Israel.

October 26, 1862:  Regiment receives marching orders and marches down the C&O Canal down the Potomac Valley to Brunswick, MD, now called Berlin, MD.  Here they crossed a pontoon bridge and set up camp in Lovettsville, VA

October 29, 1862:  Receive marching orders; begin march to Waterford, VA.  Arrive in Waterford, VA in the evening and set up camp.

October 30-31, 1862: Regiment encamps at Waterford.


November 1, 1862:  Regiment’s last day at Waterford.

November 2, 1862:  Marching orders.  Regiment marches 13 miles to Philomont, VA via the village of Hamilton.

November 3, 1862:  Encamp at Philomont, VA.

November 4, 1862:  March to Upperville. Encamp.

November 5, 1862: March to Rectortown.  Encamp.

November 6, 1862:  March to Carter’s Run, a tributary to the Rappahannock, 2 miles from Waterloo.  Regiment passes through Salem, VA, now called Marshall, VA.  Camp at Orlean, VA.

November 7, 1862:  March from Orlean, VA to Carter’s Run…Encamp.  McClellan relieved of command by President Lincoln.  Ambrose Burnside takes command of the Army of the Potomac.

November 8-15, 1862:  Encampment at Carter’s Run near Waterloo.

November 16, 1862:  March to White Sulphur Springs…picket duty until 11:00 am.

November 17, 1862:  Picket duty until 11:00am in White Sulphur Springs.  March to a point near Warrenton Junction and then on to a point 3 miles north of Bealeton, VA.  Encamp.

November 18, 1862:  March toward Fredericksburg, VA.  Camp near Fredericksburg, near the road to Belle Plain approximately 1 to 2 miles east of Fredericksburg.

November 19-30, 1862:  Encampment outside of Fredericksburg on south side of Potomac.


December 1-12, 1862:  Encampment outside of Fredericksburg on south side of Potomac.

December 13, 1862:  Disastrous Battle of Fredericksburg.  Roundheads held in reserve are scheduled to attack Marye’s Heights but officers under Burnside convince him that further attacks would be suicidal.  Roundheads cross Potomac into the streets of Fredericksburg in the afternoon. But stay in position there.

December 14, 1862:  Go into Winter Quarters west of the Phillips House near the road to Belle Plain approximately 1 to 2 miles east of Fredericksburg.

December 15-31, 1862:  Winter Quarters outside of Fredericksburg, VA


JANUARY:  Remain in Winter Quarters in and around Fredericksburg

January 21, 1863:  Roundheads don’t get a chance to participate in Burnside’s Mud March, an attempt to cross the Potomac again and envelope Lee in a flanking maneuver.  Terrible weather doomed the operation and Burnside was relieved of command on January 26, 1863.  Gen. Joseph Hooker takes over command.


February 1-9, 1863:  Remain in Winter Quarters in and around Fredericksburg

February 10, 1863:  Orders to move out….march at 2:00 pm to nearby railroad station at Falmouth to take the cars to Aquia Landing.

February 11, 1863:  From Aquia Landing take the transport “Sylvan Shore” to Fortress Monroe at Hampton Roads to the south.

February 13, 1863:  Arrive at Fortress Monroe.   March to Newport News on the nearby James River—8 miles. Encamp about 1 mile away from the main landings.

February 14-28, 1863:  Encampment at Newport News.


March 1-17, 1863:  Continue Encampment at Newport News.

March 18, 1863:  Marching orders…march for Hampton, 6 miles away.  Stay in Hampton two nights.

March 20, 1863:  March for Fortress Monroe, two hours away through snow and slush knee deep.

March 22, 1863:  Board the transport “John Brooks in the morning.  Leave for Baltimore, MD

March 23, 1863:  Arrive in Baltimore, MD.

March 24, 1863:  Depart by train to Parkersburg on the Ohio River.

March 26, 1863:  Arrive in Parkersburg…depart by steamer “Jennie Rodgers” to Cincinnati, OH.

March 28, 1863:  Arrive in Cincinnati, OH.  From Covington Depot, depart for Lexington KY by train.

March 29, 1863:  Arrive in Lexington, KY.  Encampment.


April 1-6, 1863:  Continue encampment at Lexington, KY.

April 7, 1863:  March for Nicholasville, KY—14 miles to the south.

April 8, 1863: Arrive in Nicholasville, KY at Camp Dick Robinson in the evening.

April 9-29, 1863:  Continue encampment at Camp Dick Robinson.

April 30, 1863:  Receive marching orders…march 16 miles south to Stanford, KY.  Camp.


May 1, 1863:  Continue marching south to Hustonville, KY—bivouac.

May 2, 1863:  Continue marching south through Middleburg and on to the Green River—Camp again.

May 3-22, 1863:  Continue encampment at the Green River, KY south of Middleburg.

May 23, 1863:  Receive marching orders again…march through Liberty and 2 miles beyond that—Camp.

May 24, 1863:  No marching in observance of the Sabbath…continue camping south of Liberty.

May 25, 1863:   Continue marching south covering 15 miles to Neatsville, KY—camp.

May 26, 1863:  March to a location one mile east of Columbia, KY.   Encamp.

May 27, 1863:  March west to Gradysville in the evening, 10 miles west of Columbia, KY.  Camp there at 1:00 am May 28, 1863.  Scouting for confederate cavalry guerillas under Morgan. 

May 29, 1863:  March toward Breeding 8 miles continuing search for rebel cavalry.

May 30, 1863:  Task force returns to Columbia with 25 rebel prisoners.

May 31, 1863:  Camp back at Columbia, KY location.


June 1-3, 1863:  Continue Columbia encampment.

June 4, 1863:  After receiving marching orders on the 3rd, Roundheads move out with brigade at 4:00 am.  Arrive in Campbellsville and encamp 1 mile north of the town for a 22 mile march since Columbia.

June 5, 1863:  Continue marching to Lebanon and arrive at New Market at 10:00 am.  there.  Board trains in Lebanon at midnight.

June 6, 1863:  Arrive in Louisville, KY.  Cross the Ohio River to Jeffersonville, Indiana.  Board a train for Seymour, Indiana.  Train stops at Seymour, Indiana at 3:00 pm. Train is changed to the Ohio and Mississippi railroad and continue on to Cairo, Illinois.

June 7, 1863:  Breakfast stop at Vincennes, Indiana.  Arrive at Sandoval, Illinois at 3:00 pm. 

June 8, 1863:  Arrive in Cairo, Illinois at 11:00 am. 

June 9, 1863:  Board the “Alice Dean” steamer for Memphis, TN.  Vicksburg Campaign begins.

June 10, 1863:  Arrive in Memphis, TN

June 12, 1863:  Leave Memphis on the “Alice Dean” at 7:00 am, continue down Mississippi River passing through Helena, AR to the mouth of the White River.  Dock for the night. 

June 13, 1863:  Tie up boats at Milliken’s Bend in enemy territory in the late evening.

June 14, 1863:  Convoy moors at Young’s Point, LA in the am on the Louisiana bank of the Mississippi, several miles upstream from Vicksburg, MS.

June 15, 1863:  March toward Warrenton, south of the city of Vicksburg.  At noon an order is given to march back to Young’s Point.  An aid of General Grant tells Capt. Cline that there are more soldiers around Warrenton then he knows what to do with. 

June 16, 1863:  Receive orders to go up the Yazoo River.  Embark up the river on the steamer “Sam Young”.  The water of the Yazoo is stagnant and green and the Indians of the territory named it Yazoo or “River of Death”.  Arrive at Snyder’s Bluff. 

June 17, 1863:  March from Snyder’s Bluff to Hayne’s Bluff.  Camp at Milldale Church, southeast of Snyder’s Bluff. 

June 20, 1863:  Move to a location 3 miles further to the right and entrench rifle pits. 

June 29, 1863:  March east towards Big Black River to Flower Hill Church about eight miles west of Birdsong’s Ferry on the Big Black River.

July 30, 1863:  Minor skirmish with confederate cavalry in the vicinity of Flower Hill Church.


July 1-3, 1863:  Roundheads entrenched around

July 4, 1863:  Siege on Vicksburg a success—Confederates surrender the city to General Grant.  Clear Flower Hill camp in late afternoon and march east past Young’s Cross Roads.

July 5, 1863:  March to location two miles west of Birdsong’s  Ferry on the Big Black River camping at Hill’s Plantation. 

July 6, 1863:  Build a floating bridge to cross the Big Black River at Birdsong’s Ferry.

July 7, 1863:  Cross Big Black River on  floating bridge constructed at Birdsong’s Ferry.  Encounter thunder and lighting storm for two hours.  The regiment sees it as a blessing as fresh rainwater is funneled into canteens from the rubber ponchos.  A caisson and two horses are lost when a portion of the bridge collapses during the crossing by Durell’s Pennsylvania Battery of the 9th Corps. 

July 8, 1863:  Camp at Queen’s Hill Church with Parke’s 9th Corps, 6 miles northwest of Bolton

July 9, 1863:  March to Jackson, MS.   March 12 miles to a point north of Clinton. Camp in fields north of that village.   Water is scarce…soldiers that fall out of the ranks are left behind the roadside to fend for themselves or die. 

July 10, 1863:  Approach Jackson from the north.  March 5 miles to the railroad and Canton Road.  Sleep on arms in battle line.

July 11, 1863:  Move toward Confederate fortifications in Jackson in the am.  Encounter heavy artillery fire from Confederate batteries inside Jackson. Roundheads slowly advance behind the 2nd Michigan infantry used as skirmishers.  Shot and shell rain over their heads all afternoon and into the evening but no Roundheads are wounded or killed.  Most of the action for the Roundheads occurs near the Insane Asylum. 

July 12, 1863:  In the afternoon, Leasure orders the 100th PA to move out of the battle lines and proceed up the Canton Road to protect the divisions rear and left flank after reports of Rebel cavalry being active in that area. 

July 13-16, 1863:  Roundheads remain up the Canton Road, north of Jackson guarding the division’s rear and left flank and help in front line skirmishing toward Jackson, alternating tasks. On the evening of the 16th, Joseph Johnston’s rebel troops retreat and abandon the fortifications in Jackson.

July 17, 1863:  Roundheads rejoin Leasure’s Brigade on the march up the Pearl River.  :March 8 miles north to Grant’s Ferry or Grant’s Mills in attempt to isolate and cut off Confederate General Jackson and his cavalry—bivouac.

July 18, 1863:  March 5 miles further north and strike the Mississippi Central Railroad, destroying 10 miles of rail and burning a depot.   March back to Jackson.

July 19, 1863:  Arrive in Jackson at noon.  Some troops take opportunity to visit burned out City of Jackson dubbed “Chimneyville” because of the many burned out and destroyed buildings.

July 20, 1863:  Begin march at 4 am and march 18 miles west under a hot sun.  Men dropping out of the ranks like flies. 

July 21, 1863:  Heat is so intense a halt is made at 10 am and rest until 4pm.  March through Bolton at 5 pm.  At 8 pm bivouac in a cornfield near the Big Black River.  Total march this day is 15 miles.  Many soldiers drop out of the ranks from heat and exhaustion and several die.

July 22, 1863:  Cross Big Black River and march 4 miles and camp in a Shady Wood with plenty of water on hand.

July 23, 1863:  March back to Milldale, the old encampment during the Vicksburg campaign.  Roundheads get knapsacks back here that had been in storage.

July 24-31, 1863:  Encampment at Milldale, MS.


August 1, 1863:  After receiving orders the previous day, Roundheads and the rest of the 9th Corps march to Snyder’s Bluff where the boarded steamers heading up the Mississippi. 

August 2-6, 1863:  Roundheads steam toward Cairo, IL up the Mississippi.

August 7, 1863:  Roundheads arrive in Cairo, IL after a steamer journey of over 600 miles in six days.  In the afternoon, they board train cars for Hickman’s Bridge, Kentucky between Lexington and the old camping ground Camp Dick Robinson.

August 8, 1863:  At noon, at Sandoval, IL the Roundheads change trains and bound for Cinncinnati, OH

August 9, 1863:  Reach Cincinnati in the evening.  Marched to the market house and eat a dinner of boiled ham, bread and coffee.

August 10, 1863:   Regiment travels through Lexington and arrives at railroad’s end, in Nicholasville, Kentucky.  March to Camp Nelson six miles south of there.

August 11, 1863:  Arrive in Camp Nelson. 

August 12,  1863:  Encampment at Camp Nelson.

August 13, 1863:  Move 3 miles north where Leasure’s Brigade establishes a new camp at Camp Parke in a beautiful piece of woodland.

August 14-27, 1863:  Encampment at Camp Parke, Kentucky.

August 28-30, 1863:  March 30 miles in three days to Crab Orchard, Kentucky, arriving there at 10 am on the 30th.

August 31, 1863: Encampment at Crab Orchard, Kentucky.


September 1-9, 1863:  Roundheads and the rest of the 9th Corps remain in Crab Orchard, Kentucky resting up and preparing for the East Tennessee Campaign.

September 10, 1863:  March to Mt. Vernon, Kentucky.

September 11, 1863:  March 16 miles over “Wild Cat” Ridge. Ky.  Bivouac on the banks of the Little Rockcastle River

September 12, 1863:  March to within 2 miles of London at forks of Richmond and Lexington Roads. 

September 13, 1863:  Camp at forks of Richmond and Lexington Roads in observance of the Sabbath.

September 14, 1863:  Resume marching, passing through London and stopping at the White River for dinner.  Camp 3 miles beyond London.

September 15, 1863:  Reveille at 4 am.  Long march to Barbourville, on the Cumberland River.

September 16, 1863:  March 8 miles and stop at 11 am just two miles short of the hamlet of Flat Lick, Ky. 

September 17-18, 1863:  Encampment at Flat Lick, Ky.

September 19, 1863:  March at 6 am.  Ford the Cumberland River.  March over two high ridges and cover 13 miles before camping.  Cold at night is severe. 

September 20, 1863:  March over third ridge.   Scenery is magnificent.  March 12 miles and camp in a field of high weeds on the side of a hill just beyond the Kentucky/Tennessee border in Tennessee.

September 21, 1863:  Begin marching at 5:30 am.  Orders from the previous evening instruct the regiment to move as quickly as possible to Morristown, Tennessee about 42 miles distant.  Cross the Powell River, pass through Tazewell.  March a total of 18 miles and bivouac 5 miles past Tazewell in a field of weeds as high as the Roundheads heads.

September 22, 1863:  March behind wagon train.  Ford the Clinch River and then pass over Clinch Mountain.  In the afternoon pass through Bean’s Station, ford the Holston River.  Another 18 miles are marched and regiment stops at 8 pm in Morristown.  Here, the train cars are boarded and the regiment heads for Knoxville.

September 23, 1863:  Continue train ride to Knoxville.  A train dispatch error is made and the regiment travels in the opposite direction from Knoxville toward Greenville.

September 24, 1863:  Error is corrected in the route and arrive in Knoxville at 4 am. 

September 25-28, 1863: Encampment in Knoxville.

September 29, 1863:  Regiment awakened at 3 am to march across the Holston River, east of the town move east about a mile to occupy with artillery support high ground there.  There is reports that a confederate force may be moving toward the city. 


October 8, 1863:  Move back into Knoxville. 

October 9, 1863:  Brigade boards train with General Burnside himself.  Move up valley to Bull’s Gap.

October 10, 1863:  Battle of Blue Springs.   9th Corps and 23rd Corps only union army engaged with Confederates at Blue Springs between Bull’s Gap and Greenville.

October 11, 1863:  Confederates are defeated at Blue Springs..9th and 23rd Corps drive the rebels across Watauga River, chasing them 22 miles.

October 12, 1863:   Cavalry continues to chase rebels.  Infantry does not. 

October 16, 1863:  Arrive back in Knoxville by rail. 

October 20, 1863:  March toward Loudon, 30 miles away.

October 22, 1863:  Stop 4 miles short of Loudon.  Cross the Holston River on pontoon bridge in the evening and camp in Loudon proper.

October 23-27, 1863:  Encampment at Loudon.  Await for orders.  Confederates in the vicinity.

October 28, 1863:  Roundheads fall back to Lenoir’s Station about 8 miles north of Loudon, on the north side of the Holston River.  Pontoon bridge is pulled up and freighted back to Knoxville, to be used on the Holston River crossing there.

October 29th, 1863:  Roundheads go into winter quarters at Lenoir’s Station right  next to the railroad. 


November 7, 1863:  Orders to rail to Knoxville to immediately reinforce and support the 23rd Corps who had several forces captured there. 

November 8, 1863:  Arrive in Knoxville at sunrise.  Roundheads remain for two days and camp without shelter, having left their tents in Lenoir’s Station.  After several days, there is no longer a perception of emergency and the Roundheads return to Lenoir’s Station. 

November 12, 1863:  No sooner had the Roundheads returned to their winter quarters in Lenoir’s Station that there were reports that Longstreet’s Corps had orders to attack Burnside’s 9th Corps at Loudon.  Burnside, getting wind of this, races to Knoxville to set up a defensive position and draw Longstreet further from Bragg in Chattanooga. 

November 16, 1863:  Three companies of Roundheads (A, D and F) and several other units of the 23rd and 9th Corps are at the Kingston/Concord Roads junction, dig in and ready themselves for an attack by Longstreet’s corps.  The troops are there literally minutes before the confederates and gain an advantage.

This quick development causes the Roundheads to abandon their fine winter quarters in Lenoir to the enemy.  Whatever supplies and baggage is not saved is set a fire to prevent it from being captured by the rebs. 

The attack by the confederates at Campbell’s Station fails as the 9th Corps effectively places artillery in good defensive positions. Captain Thomas J. Hamilton of the Roundheads commands the 3 companies engaged and only suffer 3 wounded.

November 17, 1863:  Remaining companies of the Roundheads arrive in Knoxville.  Settle into and around Fort Sanders at Knoxville with entrenchments and rifle pits.

November 29, 1863:  Longstreet’s corps of McLaw’s Division and Anderson’s Brigade of Jenkins’ Division assault Fort Sanders.  Co. A of the Roundheads are the only company in the fort.  The other companies are in a line of entrenchment running 200 yards to the Kingston Pike.  Attack is repulsed and Roundheads lose several men from Company A.


December 7, 1863:  Roundheads pursue Longstreet’s retreat having left December 4.  March 12 miles first day.

December 8, 1863:  March seven miles.

December 9, 1863:  March 12 miles to Rutledge, Tennessee.

December 10-13, 1863:  Encampment at Rutledge.  Cavalry activity in the vicinity of Bean’s Station to the north.

December 14, 1863:  Roundheads move out with brigade to Farley’s Mill about 7 miles north of Rutledge on the Holston River to support cavalry engagements with the rebels.  After some shots are exchanged fall back to about 4 miles from Rutledge and camp for the night.

December 15, 1863:  More shots are exchanged and infantry falls back to cover the cavalry retreat from Bean’s Station.

December 16, 1863:  March to Blaine’s Cross Roads and form a line of battle.

December 17, 1863:  Continue defensive position and exchange shots with Confederate forces.  Weather is wet and miserable.

December 18, 1863:  Confederates retreat entirely and Roundheads go into camp at Blaine’s Cross Roads, 14 miles northeast of Knoxville.

December 29, 1863:  Roundheads extend their service beyond the 3 year enlistment…Chaplain Browne resigns.


January 12, 1864:  Roundheads that re-enlist start the long trek home  to Pennsylvania on 30 day furlough.  They travel 175 miles in 10 days.   March 20 miles.

January 13, 1864:  No information.

January 14, 1864:  March 17 miles.  Passed through Cumberland Gap at 12:30 pm.  Bad roads.

January 15, 1864:  March 15 miles. Cross two mountains and one river.

January 16, 1864:  March 22 miles.  Eat dinner at Barbersville.

January 17, 1864:  March to Camp Pitman, near London.

January 18, 1864:  March 16 miles from London to Rockcastle River.

January 19, 1864:  March 10 miles to Mt. Vernon.

January 20, 1864:  March 11 miles to Crab Orchard.

January 21, 1864:  March 18 miles and approach Camp Dick Robinson.

January 22, 1864:  March past Camp Robinson to Camp Nelson. 

January 23, 1864:  Break camp at 8 am.  Take train to Nicholasville and then on to Covington, Kentucky.  Board train for Cinncinnati

January 24, 1864:  Arrive in Cinncinnati and march to 6th Street Barracks.


February 5, 1864:  After many delays in issuing official furlough papers, Roundheads leave Cinncinnati

February 5, 1864:  Regiment leaves by train from Cinncinnati to Pittsburg, Pa.  At 7 pm change trains in Columbus, OH.

February 6, 1864:  Arrive in Pittsburg, Pa at 4 pm.

February 7, 1864:  Roundheads are given furlough papers and are free to proceed home.

February 8, 1864:  Companies A and M leave for Washington and Westmoreland Counties.   All eight other companies of the regiment arrive in New Castle for a luncheon hosted by the citizens.

February 9-28, 1864:  Regiment on furlough.


March 1-7, 1864:  Regiment on furlough

March 8-21, 1864:  New recruits drilling at Camp Copeland.  Some veterans return. 

March 22, 1864:  Last of the veterans of the regiment arrive at Camp Copeland, officially ending their furlough.

March 23, 1864: Board train at 3 pm for Baltimore

March 24, 1864:  March to wharf.  Depart on steamboat  “Columbia”  for Annapolis, MD.  Arrive in mid-afternoon.

March 25, 1864:  Encampment at Camp Burnside near Annapolis, MD.  Location approximately 1 mile from Camp Parole.

March 26-31, 1864: Encampment at Camp Burnside drilling new recruits and awaiting orders.


April 1-22, 1864:  Encampment at Camp Burnside near Annapolis, MD.

April 23, 1864:  9th Corps begins to move. 

April 24, 1864:  Bivouac at Bladensburg, just outside Washington.

April 25, 1864:  President Lincoln, General Burnside and others watch as the 9th Corps parades through Washington down New York Avenue, along 14th Street passing the Willard Hotel.  Here is where the President, General Burnside and other dignitaries watched from a balcony above the hotel.  Go into camp in the vicinity of Alexandria.

April 26, 1864:  Camp two miles west of Alexandria, Va.

April 27, 1864: Orders received to move out.  Reveille at 4 am and regiment begins march at 8 am.  March to Fairfax Courthouse, 16 miles away.

April 28, 1864:  March to Bristoe Station, 20 miles.

April 29, 1864:   March 12 miles and bivouac 3 miles south of Warrenton Junction.

April 30, 1864:  March to Bealeton Station, 5 miles.

April 31, 1864:  Encampment at Bealeton Station.


May 1-3, 1864:  Encampment at Bealeton Station.

May 4, 1864:  Reveille at 3:00 am, ready to march at 5:00 am.  Train wreck derailment in front of camp kills 2 and wounds 3 soldiers.  March off to Brandy Station, 8 miles.  Camp.

May 5, 1864:  Start march at 7:00 am, march 1 mile.  Cross Rapidan River and lay on south bank in position until night and then go out on picket.  Troops in advance engaged in battle.

May 6, 1864:  Roundheads engage confederates in the am in the second day of the Battle of the Wilderness.  Moved into position near the Wilderness Tavern.

Roundheads commanded to conduct a sweep of confederate forces  along with 21st Mass and 3rd Maryland regiments.  Sweep made along right flank, 100 feet west and parallel with the Brock Road. 

"At daylight a great battle seems to be on; owing to the heavy forest, and thick under growth, and the broken rough country, our fighting lines are hid from view. As the day advances musketry firing grows more and more furious, crashing along our lines in a continuous rattling roar, rising and falling as it waves destruction along the different sections of our widely extended lines. Artillery not much in use because of the unfavorable topography of the field. The field hospital has been established near our head quarters; crores of wounded are being brought in and many surgeons are at work. General Grant, also General Mead, both on the field. Heavy fighting all day. Fire broke out in the underbrush on a part of our line, and some of the wounded lying on the field were burned. at sun-down the enemy broke our right causing confusion and alarm. General Wadsworth who was in command on the right was killed in this charge of the enemy, also General Hayes. Darkness ends the terrible struggle of the day, but the groans of the wounded and dying fill the air".   --Henderson George, 100th PA

May 7, 1864: 




Campaigning with the Roundheads, The History of the Hundredth Pennsylvania Veteran Volunteer Regiment in the American Civil War 1861-1865, The Roundhead Regiment, By: William G. Gavin, 1989, Morningside Publishers, 773 p

"Diary and Memoirs of Pvt. Henderson George, Co. G" Website at www.100thpenn.com/hendersongeorgediary.htm, by Robert Luoma

"Diary of Pvt. Bingham Findley Junkin, Co. E", Website at http://www.100thpenn.com/bfjunkindiary.htm, by Eric Davis



This site was last updated 02/18/13