Major Battles, Sieges or other Action of the
100th Regiment, Pennsylvania Volunteers, "Roundheads"
National Park Service Photograph, no
photographer or copyright information listed:
good list of major campaigns/battles that the 100th Pennsylvania
participated in from
Port Royal, S.C. Nov. 7, 1861
(US Naval Ship artillery siege on Confederate Earthworks Forts Walker and
<--Federal Bombardment of Fort Walker and Beauregard
with Transport Fleet in the distance that Roundheads were part of,
waiting to land after the bombbardment and evacuation by the
Port Royal Ferry, S.C. Jan. 1, 1862
Synopsis of units engaged and battle from
<-- Port Royal Ferry, SC
S.C. Skirmish at Legare's Point, June 3, 1862 (the best account of
this skirmish comes from Captain James Cline, Co. F who was captured here and
was a prisoner of war for around 90 days.)
<--Captain James F.
Cline, Co. F, captured at Skirmish at Legare's Point June 3, 1862.
S.C. Battle of Secessionville, June 16, 1862 (this is a good article
on the battle that draws heavily on both the History of the 79th NY Highlanders
and Patrick Brennan's recent and acclaimed history, Secessionville
<--Federal Troops, including the Roundhead
Regiment, storm Tower Lamar, June 16, 1862
(2nd Battle of), Va.
Aug. 29 and 30, 1862
<--Painting of 2nd Battle
of Bull Run by Currier and Ives
Sept. 1, 1862
<--Death of General Isaac
Stevens at Battle of Chantilly September 1, 1862 by Alonzo Chapel--1865
Mountain, Md. Sept. 14, 1862
<--Battle of South Mountain painting, Fox's Gap
Antietam, Md. Sept. 17, 1862
<--Battle of Antietam, Assault across Burnside's Bridge Art
Sketch, Edwin Forbes
Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 12 and 13, 1862
of Fredericksburg diorama--Roundheads fortunately were not in the
Union's assault on Marye's Heights shown here but were posted near the
river off the right edge of the diorama, near the center of the union
army posted as a reserve.
of Vicksburg, MS June 15 to July 4, 1863
<-- Siege on Vicksburg
Siege on Jackson, MS, July 11 to 15, 1863
of Co. D, one of only two Roundheads wounded in action at Jackson,
MS--wounded on July 15, 1863, the other was Christian Lobingier of Co. A
on July 13, 1863. Read Lobingier's 1862 diary
Blue Springs, Tenn. Oct. 10, 1863
Historical Marker No. IC 72 for Battle of Blue Springs, TN, Oct 10, 1863
Campbell Station, Tenn. Nov. 16, 1863
<--Tennessee Historical Marker No. IE 73 for Battle of Campbell
Station, TN, Oct 10, 1863
Siege of Knoxville,
Tenn. Nov. 18, to Dec. 5, 1863
Phineas Bird, Co. C, only Roundhead listed as casualty during siege
(except for Battle of Fort Saunders on Nov. 29, 1863); . Bird was
wounded in the head on Nov. 20, 1863 but survived. Bird had his
likeness taken only several days before receiving his wound.
Photograph from Michael Kraus Collection, used with permission.
Read Bird's 1862 diary
This image of Bird is also in the December 2012 Publication "The Civil
War in Pennsylvania, A Photographic History", by Ken Turner, Michael
Kraus and David Neville available for purchase
Sanders, Tenn. Nov. 29, 1863
lithograph of Battle of Fort Sanders. Please visit the
memorial dedication page
to fallen Roundheads Isaac Garretson and Aaron Templeton of Co. A
who were killed at Fort Sanders (aka Saunders).
Wilderness, Va. May 6, 1864
the characteristics of the Battle of the Wilderness was the horrible
fires that swept across the heavy brush and wooded battlefield.
This sketch by famous artist and photographer Alfred R. Waud, depicts
the fires that swept over the field and burned many wounded soldiers
Court House, Va. May 12, 1864
Spottsylvania Court House as depicted by Currier & Ives. The
Roundhead Regiment sustained heavy losses on this day. Many of
their fresh February and March 1864 recruits were killed or wounded in
this battle, inexperienced soldiers trying to fight and survive across a
difficult wooded battlefield. The American Civil War
Research database records 19 killed, 74 wounded and 1 missing in the
battle--the worst casualties for the regiment during the entire war.
The Official Records record the regiment lost 44 killed and mortally
Henderson George Diary and and
B.F. Junkin Diary all provide an eyewitness log to the
severity of the fighting.
North Anna River, Va. May 23, 1864
<--Pontoon bridge across
the North Anna River constructed by US Engineers prior to the battle.
No deaths were reported in the battle for the regiment, though there
were seven wounded over four days of fighting.
Bethesda Church, Va.
May 28-30, 1864
<--Battle of Bethesda Church Marker O-12.
Cold Harbor, Va. June
<--Lt. David J.
Gilfillian, Co. F--promising officer was killed at Cold Harbor on June
1, 1864. A descendant of this soldier, the late William Gilfillian
Gavin, wrote the 1989 history of the regiment, "Campaigning with the
Roundheads" The 2nd regimental flag shows the battle honors of
Cold Harbor spelled as
"Coal Harbor", which is what the soldiers
apparently called it.
Assault on Petersburg, Va. June 17, 1864
were made by Grant's Army at the beginning of the 10 month Siege on
Petersburg, VA starting in June of 1864, immediately following Cold
Harbor. The Roundheads participated in the 2nd assault and took
heavy losses on June 17, 1864. Artwork from Harper's Weekly from
that time period.
Mine Explosion, Va. July 30, 1864
Battle of the Mine Explosion or "Battle of the Crater"; A
brilliant plan to blow up the Confederate lines and breach them to
deliver a final blow to the Confederacy was poorly executed by Union
command. Allegedly, one of the commanders, General Ledlie, sat in
a bombproof and drank whiskey during the detonation of the mine and
subsequent assault into the crater.
The 100th Pennyslvania
were heavily involved in the assault through the pit after the
Confederates had regrouped and directed artillery into the crowded pit
of fighting, struggling and dying men. Their colors (left) were
shattered when a shell struck Lt. Richard Craven of Co. K (right) who
had picked up the colors and was rallying the men. The shell
obliterated Craven based on eyewitness accounts by numerous veterans,
shattered the staff of the colors and shredded the flag. A portion
of the flag was recovered and another portion of the flag returned by
Confederate veterans to the State of Pennsylvania years later.
A re-creation of this
battle at the beginning of the film "Cold Mountain" accurately depicted
the trenches outside of Petersburg, the mine explosion, resulting crater
and cramped fighting conditions inside the pit. A detailed history
of the battle was written by Silas Stevenson
excellent website on the Siege on Petersburg is presented by Brett
Weldon Rail Road, Va. Aug. 19
through 21, 1864
<--Corp. John McConnell,
Co.D killed Aug 19, 1864 at Weldon Railroad
Poplar Grove Church, Va. Sept. 30, 1864
(not much for battle summaries available on the internet, but this account found
on Brett Schulte's
www.beyondthecrater.com is a good synopsis.
<--Poplar Grove National Cemetery annual luminary lighting; The
site of this National Cemetery near the Poplar Grove Church battlefield,
has a number of Roundheads buried there.
Hatcher’s Run, Va. Oct. 27, 1864
<-- The Second Corps, under General
Hancock, Flanking the Confederate Works at Armstrong's Mill on Hatcher's
Run, VA, October 27, 1864. Original photo from Harper's Weekly,
image courtesy of Brett Schulte's
Fort Stedman, Va. March 25, 1865
<--One of the Roundheads' finest moments
taking part in the re-taking of Fort Stedman, March 25, 1865. This
Library of Congress painting at the Petersburg National Battlefield Park
shows the union forces storming up the trenches into Fort Stedman with
Petersburg, VA spires in the horizon. Roundheads were positioned
near Fort Haskell shown in the distance in the upper left corner of the
painting when Gordon made his surprise attack in the early morning
hours, driving the 100th PA from their camp. It was here that
commanding officer Lt. Col. Joseph Pentecost was mortally wounded.
Major Norman J. Maxwell, 2nd in command with
Captain Joseph F. Carter of the 3rd Maryland, organized a contingent
to retake the fort. Though Hartranfts 9th Corps 3rd Division received
most of the credit for the retaking of the fort in the history books,
Orlando B. Willcox's 9th Corps 1st Division (including the Roundheads
and 3rd Maryland) was every bit as deserving. A wonderful
biography on Gen. O.B. Willcox,
"Forgotten Valor, The Memoirs, Journals and Civil War Letters of
Orlando B. Willcox", edited by
Robert Garth Scott, has detailed description of the 1st Division's
Service at Fort Stedman. Also visit the websmith's page on Fort
and the Medal of Honor Page
where both Medals of Honor awarded to Roundhead soldiers were based on
Final Assault on Petersburg, Va. April 2, 1865
<--Captain Charles Gould of the 5th
Vermont breaches the Confederate Lines at Petersburg, April 2, 1865.
Don Troiani painting,
On a side note, the
websmith David L. Welch is also a descendant of a soldier of the 5th
Vermont Infantry, Charles G. Sheldon. Pvt. Sheldon was in some
severe Civil War Battles, particularly Savages Station in McClellan's
Seven Days Battles of 1862 where he was one of only seven soldiers in
his company that was not killed or wounded and one of 15 that were not
killed. Pvt. Sheldon had already mustered out on disability due to
poor health prior to the breach at Petersburg, VA. An excellent
history of Sheldon's Co. E, Equinox Guard, "No
Braver Deeds", the Story of the Equinox Guards" is available from
author Brian L. Knight.